“Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a set of procedures where there is a process of inputing data, storage and data processing, map making and spatial analysis for both spatial and attribute data to support the activities of an organization’s decision-making (Grimshaw, 1999)”
GIS is basically a computer-based information systems using digital data berujuk on the geographical location on earth, many countries named by the term “Geo – Informatics” later shortened to Geomatics, which describes the terrestrial information is processed by computer.
There are several reasons that cause GIS applications become attractive for use in various disciplines of science, among others are:
- GIS uses both spatial and attribute data in an integrated until the system can answer and attributes are integrated until the system can answer both questions of spatial (following permodelannya) and non-spatial – having spatial and non spatial analysis.
- GIS can separate clearly between the form of presentation with the data (data base), so have the capabilities to change the presentation in various forms.
- GIS has the ability to decipher the elements contained in the earth’s surface in the form of several layers or spatial data coverage. With these layers can be reconstructed back to the earth’s surface or modeled in the form of real (real world of three dimensions) using elevation data needed following thematic layers.
GIS is helping the jobs closely related to the areas of spatial and geo-information. Due to such great benefits, the SIG is very well known people to become even wider penggunaaanya from time to time. Therefore, at present in almost all disciplines (especially those associated with terrestrial information) are also familiar with and using GIS as a tool of analysis and representation of interest. Thus GIS can also be used as a means of communication and integration among disciplines (especially the sciences that require information about the earth or the Geosciences).
GIS As a Decision Support System
GIS is a system software, hardware and procedures designed to support the entry, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and presentation of spatial data / geography to planning and management practices.
Based on its function, GIS is also often called Decision Support System (Decision Support System). With multiple sources of information and data sources that support the GIS, the decision to be taken will have a stronger base. Differences GIS with other information systems are CAD (Computer Aided Design) and DBMS (Database Management System) by the Borough (1986) simply stated that GIS is a planning tool so that all the necessary planning tools can be found in this system. GIS relationships with subsystems that are other planning tools can be described as in this picture:
The analysis used in each application that is always based on the functions of one or more of these subsystems.
As a systems analysis of the data analysis process so much geography and attributes that can be done by this system, including graphical analysis of overlapping stacking data, statistical analysis of attribute data, frequency analysis, analysis of sorting data attributes and sorting of data graphics. Besides, the system is also capable of displaying basic data, data analysis with a specific CATEGORY.
GIS has various components, namely the data / information, software, hardware and brandware. Brandware is the operator that manages all these components into information. Operators also makes GIS is a dynamic system.
GIS in the sense of the system consists of three main subsystems: the sub-system input (input), processes and outputs (output).
Activities undertaken in this phase include data entry, can be digitized (digitizer; digitized on screen), importing data, converting data, and transformation.
- PROCCESS (analysis)
This analysis includes activities such as overlays, creating thematic maps, the general process of this analysis include: Compilation, editing the database, update data, overlay and digital analysis.
Results of analysis of merging several maps can be either thematic maps, diagrams model, or the other. In general, the results of the output divided by two is the graphic output (thematic maps, graphs crosssection results, graphs, etc.) and non-graphical (text data).
So little written about the GIS good luck always … regards